Lista dei sedicenti Messia
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This is a list of people who have been said to be a messiah, either by themselves or by their followers. The list is divided into categories, which are sorted according to date of birth (where known).
Jewish messiah claimants
The Jewish Messiah originally meant a divinely appointed king; David, Cyrus the Great, and Alexander the Great are examples of such. Later, especially after the failure of Bar Kokhba's revolt, the figure of the messiah was one who would deliver the Jews from oppression and usher in a new world.
- Simon of Peraea (ca. 4 BC), a former slave of Herod the Great who rebelled and was killed by the Romans.
- Athronges (ca. 3 BC), a shepherd turned rebel leader.
- Jesus of Nazareth (ca. 4 BC — AD 30-?), a wandering prophet and teacher who was crucified by the Romans; Jews who believed him to be the Messiah were the first Christians, also known as Jewish Christians.
- Menahem ben Judah (?), allegedly son of Judas of Galilee, partook in a revolt against Agrippa II before being slain by a rival Zealot leader.
- Vespasian, c.70, according to Josephus
- Simon bar Kokhba (?- ca. 135), founded a short-lived Jewish state before being defeated in the Second Jewish-Roman War.
- Moses of Crete (?), who in about 440-470 convinced the Jews of Crete to attempt to walk into the sea to return to Israel; he disappeared after that disaster.
- Ishak ben Ya'kub Obadiah Abu 'Isa al-Isfahani (684-705), who led a revolt in Persia against the Umayyad Caliph 'Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan.
- Serene (?), who around 720 claimed to be the Messiah and advocated expulsion of Muslims and relaxing various rabbinic laws before being arrested; he then recanted.
- David Alroy (?), born in Kurdistan, who around 1160 agitated against the caliph before being assassinated.
- Nissim ben Abraham (?), active around 1295.Template:Citation needed
- Moses Botarel of Cisneros (?), active around 1413; claimed to be a sorcerer able to combine the names of God.
- Asher Lemmlein (?), a German near Venice who proclaimed himself a forerunner of the Messiah in 1502.
- David Reubeni (1490-1541?) and Solomon Molcho (1500–1532), adventurers who travelled in Portugal, Italy, and Turkey; Molcho was eventually burned at the stake by the Pope.
- A mostly unknown Czech Jew from around the 1650s.
- Sabbatai Zevi (1626–1676), an Ottoman Jew who claimed to be the Messiah, but then converted to Islam; still has followers today in the Donmeh.
- Barukhia Russo (Osman Baba), successor of Sabbatai Zevi.
- Jacob Querido (?-1690), claimed to be the new incarnation of Sabbatai; later converted to Islam and led the Donmeh.
- Miguel Cardoso (1630–1706), another successor of Sabbatai who claimed to be the "Messiah ben Ephraim."
- Mordecai Mokia (1650–1729), "the Rebuker," another person who proclaimed himself Messiah after Sabbatai's death.
- Löbele Prossnitz (?-1750), a proven fraud who nevertheless attained some following amongst former followers of Sabbatai, calling himself the "Messiah ben Joseph."
- Jacob Joseph Frank (1726–1791), who claimed to be the reincarnation of King David and preached a synthesis of Christianity and Judaism.
- Menachem Mendel Schneerson (1902–1994), the seventh Chabad Rabbi who tried to "prepare the way" for the Messiah. Some of his followers believe him to be the Messiah, but this belief is declining.
Christian messiah claimants
Verses in the Bible tell that Jesus will come again in some fashion; various people have claimed to, in fact, be the second coming of Jesus. Others have been styled a new messiah still under the umbrella of Christianity.
- Simon Magus and Dositheos the Samaritan, mid first century
- Montanus, who claimed to be the promised Paraclete, mid second century
- Adalbert, a bishop who claimed miraculous powers circa 744. The Pope excommunicated him.
- Tanchelm of Antwerp (ca. 1110), who violently opposed the sacrament and the Eucharist.
- Ann Lee (1736–1784), a central figure to the Shakers who thought she "embodied all the perfections of God" in female form.
- Bernhard Müller (c. 1799–1834) claimed to be the Lion of Judah and a prophet in possession of the Philosopher's stone.
- John Nichols Thom (1799–1838), a Cornish tax rebel.
- Arnold Potter (1804–1872), Latter Day Saint schismatic leader; called himself "Potter Christ"
- Hong Xiuquan of China (1812–1864), claimed to be the younger brother of Jesus.
- Bahá'u'lláh (1817–1892), born Shiite, adopting Bábism later in life, he claimed to be the promised one of all religions, and founded the Bahá'í Faith.
- William W. Davies (1833–1906), Latter Day Saint schismatic leader; claimed that his infant son Arthur (b. 1868) was the reincarnated Jesus Christ
- Father Divine / George Baker (c. 1880 – September 10, 1965), an African American spiritual leader from about 1907 until his death who claimed to be God.
- Georges-Emest Roux (1903–1981), the "Christ of Montfavet," founder of the Universal Christian Church.
- Sun Myung Moon (b. 1920), founder of the Unification Church. Claims he is the Second Coming of Christ.
- Yahweh ben Yahweh (1935–2007), born as Hulon Mitchell, Jr., a black nationalist and separatist who created the Nation of Yahweh and allegedly orchestrated the murder of dozens of persons.
- Iesu Matayoshi (b. 1944), in 1997 he established the World Economic Community Party based on his conviction that he is God and the Christ.
- Jung Myung Seok (b. 1945), claims to be the Second Coming of Christ, founder of Providence Church, and convicted rapist.
- Jose Luis de Jesus Miranda (b. 1946), a Puerto Rican preacher who has claimed to be "the Man Jesus Christ", who is indwelled with the same spirit that dwelled in Jesus. Founder of the "Growing in Grace" ministries.
- Inri Cristo (b. 1948) of Indaial, Brazil, a claimant to be the second Jesus.
- Apollo Quiboloy (b. 1950), who claims that Jesus Christ is the "Almighty Father," that Quiboloy is "His Appointed Son," and that salvation is now completed. Proclaims himself as the "Appointed Son of the God" not direct to the point as the "Begotten Son of the God"
- David Icke (b. 1952), of Great Britain, has described himself as "the son of God", and a "channel for the Christ spirit".
- David Koresh (Vernon Wayne Howell) (1959–1993), leader of the Branch Davidians.
- Maria Devi Christos (b. 1960), founder of the Great White Brotherhood.
- Sergei Torop (b. 1961), who started to call himself "Vissarion", founder of the Church of the Last Testament and the spiritual community Ecopolis Tiberkul in Southern Siberia.
- Wayne Bent (b. 1941), also known as Michael Travesser of the Lord Our Righteousness Church, also known and the Strong City Cult, convicted December 15, 2008 of one count of criminal sexual contact of a minor and two counts of contributing to the delinquency of a minor in 2008.
- David Shayler (b. 1965), former MI5 agent and whistleblower who declared himself the Messiah on 7 July 2007.
- Laszlo Toth claimed he was Jesus Christ as he battered Michelangelo's Pieta with a geologist hammer.
- Charles Manson, leader of the "Manson family" who ordered his followers to kill in preparation for the end of the world. He also claimed to be Satan.
Muslim messiah claimants
- Muhammad Jaunpuri (1443–1505), who traveled Northeastern India; he influenced the Mahdavia and the Zikris.
- Báb (1819–1850), who declared himself to be the promised Mahdi in Shiraz, Iran in 1844. (Related to Baha'i claims.)
- Muhammad Ahmad ("The Mad Mahdi") (1844–1885), who declared himself the Mahdi in 1881, defeated the Ottoman Egyptian authority, and founded a short-lived empire in Sudan.
- Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (1835–1908) of Qadian, 'the Promised Messiah' return of Jesus as well as the 'Mahdi', founder of the Ahmadiyya religious movement. He preached that Jesus Christ had survived crucifixion and died a natural death. He was the only person in Islamic history to have claimed to be both the promised return of Jesus as well as the promised Mahdi.
- Sayyid Mohammed Abdullah Hassan (1864–1920) of Somaliland, who engaged in military conflicts from 1900 to 1920.
- Rashad Khalifa (1935–1990), a numerologist who analyzed the Qu'ran; claimed to be the "Messenger of the Covenant" and founded the "Submitters International" movement before being murdered.
- Juhayman al-Otaibi (1936–1980), who seized the Grand Mosque in Mecca in November 1979 and declared his son-in-law the Mahdi.
Other/combination messiah claimants
This list features people who are said, either by themselves or their followers, to be some form of a messiah that do not easily fit into only Judaism, Christianity and Islam.
- Haile Selassie of Ethiopia (1892–1975), Messiah of the Rastafari movement. Never claimed himself to be messiah, but was proclaimed by Leonard Howell, amongst others.
- André Matsoua (1899–1942), Congolese founder of Amicale, proponents of which subsequently adopted him as Messiah.
- World Teacher (unknown), claims to be the Maitreya and promised one of all religions; promoted by New Age activist Benjamin Creme and his organization, Share International.
- Rael, leader of the Raelian Movement (born 30 September 1946); Rael claimed he met an extraterrestrial being in 1973 and became the Messiah.
- Nirmala Srivastava, guru and goddess of Sahaja Yoga, has proclaimed herself to be the Comforter promised by Jesus ie the incarnation of the Holy Ghost / Adi Shakti.
- Billy Meier (1937), a Swiss citizen and self-proclaimed contactee of the "Pleiadians" who told "Billy" he is the reincarnation of Jesus Christ, whose "real" name was Jmmanuel.
- ↑ Jewish Encyclopedia: Messiah: Alexander as Messiah
- ↑ JA 17.10.6
- ↑ (JA 17.10.7)
- ↑ "What more than all else incited them [the Jews] to the [1st Roman] war was an ambiguous oracle ... found in their sacred scriptures, to the effect that at that time one from their country would become ruler of the world. This they understood to mean someone of their own race, and many of their wise men went astray in their interpretation of it. The oracle, however, in reality signified the sovereignty of Vespasian who was proclaimed Emperor on Jewish soil" — Josephus' Jewish War 6.312-13 in Crossan's Who Killed Jesus?, page 44, ISBN 0-06-061479-X
- ↑ A page from the Jewish Museum of Prague about Solomon Molcho mentions this nameless Czech Jew.
- ↑ The Rebbe's Army, Chapter 14, ISBN 9780805211382
- ↑ Catholic Encyclopedia: Dositheans: "Origen states that "Dositheus the Samaritan, after the time of Jesus, wished to persuade the Samaritans that he himself was the Messias prophesied by Moses" (Contra Celsum, VI, ii); and he classes him with John the Baptist, Theodas, and Judas of Galilee as people whom the Jews mistakenly held to be the Christ (Hom. xxv in Lucam; Contra Celsum, I, lvii)."
- ↑ Template:Cite news
- ↑ Rev. Dr. Sun Myung Moon - The Messiah and True Parents
- ↑ Summary of INRI CRISTO’s life
- ↑ Template:Cite news
- ↑ Template:Cite web
- ↑ Judith Coney, Sahaja Yoga: Socializing Processes in a South Asian New Religious Movement (1999) p27 "She began her mission of salvation in earnest, establishing a reputation as a faith healer ... Then, on December 2nd 1979, in London, she unequivocally declared her divinity to her followers: '[Today] is the day I declare that I am the One who has to save the humanity. I declare, I am the one who is Adi Shakti, who is the Mother of all the mothers, who is the Primordial Mother, the Shakti, the purest desire of God, who has incarnated on this Earth to give meaning to itself...' Since then, she is most often understood by her followers to be the Devi, the Goddess of Indian mythology, returned to save the world."
- ↑ ::Sahaja Yoga-Tamil:: Adi Sakthi By Thirumoolar
- Jewish messianism
- Jewish Messiah claimants
- List of avatar claimants
- List of Buddha claimants
- List of charismatic leaders
- List of people considered to be deities
- List of people who have claimed to be Jesus Christ
- Messiah complex (self-concept)